Science and Technology in the post Mauryan period
Science and Technology In the post-Mauryan period, the contact with the Greeks made progress in astronomy and astrology. In Sanskrit texts, we find many Greek words related to the communication of planets and constellations. The Greek word Horoscope became Horoshastra in Sanskrit, which in Sanskrit means astrology. The Greek word Drakma became Drum in India. The Greek rulers used the Brahmi script and used many Indian motifs on their coins. Dogs, cattle, spices and ivory items were sent out by the Greeks. In the Charakasamhita there are names of innumerable plants from which medicines were made for the treatment of diseases.
physicians in the post-Mauryan period
The ancient Indian physicians mainly depended on plants in the treatment of diseases . Which is called medicine in Sanskrit and the medicine made from it is called medicine. The practice of making leather shoes probably started in India from this period. The copper Kushan period coins prevalent in India were an imitation of Roman coins. Similarly, the gold coins minted by the Kushanas in India were an imitation of Roman gold coins. Roman Emperor Augustus in 27-28 AD and 110-120 AD. Ambassadors were sent from India to the court of the Roman emperor Trajan. Foreign technology and methods had a special impact on glass work during this period.
Rg-Veda era culture and science technology
In India the earliest references to geographical data are found within the Rg-Veda. Casual references to tribes, rivers, and other geographical landmarks indicate that geographical knowledge wasn’t lacking during the Vedic period. The ancient Indians conceptions of the universe and therefore the earth determined to an excellent extent their understanding of the earth‟s physical properties and conditions.
In Vedic literature the universe is usually conceived as consisting of the world and sky (heaven), and sometimes of the world , air (atmosphere), and sky. Solar bodies are understood as belonging to the realm of the sky and atmospheric phenomena like lightning thereto of the air.
The semispherical shape of the sky as seen by the attention led to the comparison within the Rg-Veda of the sky and earth to 2 great bowls (camva) turned towards each other. The earth is denoted in the Rg-Veda by such words as prthivi (the expansive or large), prthvi or urvi (the broad), mahi (the great), apara (the limitless), and uttana (the stretched out).
Thee Rg-Veda contains references suggesting the spherical shape of the earth. It says, for instance, that every sacrificial altar or ground on the surface of the earth is its centre. The term dvipa (island) occurs in the Rg-Veda and other Vedic texts. But it is unlikely that the word refers to any island, continent, or major land area as it does in the Epics and Puranas. Abundant evidence of the geographical knowledge of the Indian people is available in post-Vedic literature. The Epics contain numerous incidental geographical references about the earth in general and Bharatavarsa in particular. The Puranas constitute the most detailed and comprehensive source of geographical knowledge of the post-Vedic period. The range of their treatment of the subject covers the geography of practically the whole of the old world, the surrounding oceans and observation of some of the atmospheric phenomena.
Caraka and Susruta
Kautilya‟s Arthasastra and medical works like the Caraka and Susruta provide additional details by way of mentioning the natural products of different regions. The astronomical works of Varahamihira, Parasara, and others contribute topographical data regarding the regions of the subcontinent and are valuable sources of the knowledge of mathematical geography which developed in the post-Vedic period. Literary works of Kalidasa, Bana, Kalhana, Rajasekhara, and others also contain geographical references. Epigraphic records arc innumerable and replete with geographical material relating to India and her colonies. The concept of the earth comprising a number of dvipas, meaning continents, seems to have emerged in the post-Vedic period. Use of the term cakravala-rajya to mean the whole world is also found in Pali literature.
Thee cakravala is conceived as ca vast circular plane covered with water with Mount Meru or Mahameru standing at the centre‟. According to most Puranas, the earth (prthivi) consists of seven dvipas. The descriptions of the seven seas as consisting of sugar-cane juice, wine, etc. should not be taken too literally. Most of the Puranas give details of the vegetation, rivers, mountains, climates, etc. of the dvipas. The Puranas contain an elaborate list of mountains and mountain ranges of the seven dvipas. Geographical knowledge becomes more intimate as one turns to Jambudvipa. The concept of Bharatavarsa is an important piece of geographical information found in ancient Indian literature.
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